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Securities Law
FEDERAL SECURITIES LAW
 - Securities Act of 1933
 - Securities Act of 1934
    - Rules Promulgated under
      the Securities Act of 1934

STATE SECURITIES LAW

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Selected Sections of the

Connecticut Uniform Securities Act

 

Sections included on the Connecticut Securities Act Page:

Section 26b-3 Definitions.
Section 36b-5 Prohibited activities of investment advisers and persons who solicit advisory business on behalf of investment advisers.
Section 26b-23 False or misleading statements prohibited.
Section 36b-28 Penalties.
Section 36b-29 Buyer’s remedies.

DEFINITIONS

Sec. 36b-3. (Formerly Sec. 36-471). Definitions. As used in sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires:
            (1) "Agent" means any individual, other than a broker-dealer, who represents a broker-dealer or issuer in effecting or attempting to effect purchases or sales of securities. "Agent" does not include an individual who represents an issuer in (A) effecting transactions in a security exempted by subdivision (1), (2), (3), (4), (6), (9), (10), (11) or (21) of subsection (a) of section 36b-21, (B) effecting transactions exempted by subsection (b) of section 36b-21, except for transactions exempted by subdivisions (10), (13) or (14) of said subsection, (C) effecting transactions with existing employees, partners or directors of the issuer if no commission or other remuneration is paid or given directly or indirectly for soliciting any person in this state, or (D) effecting transactions in any covered security, except for covered securities within the meaning of Sections 18(b)(2) or 18(b)(4)(D) of the Securities Act of 1933. "Agent" does not include such other persons not within the intent of this subdivision as the commissioner may by regulation or order determine. A general partner, officer or director of a broker-dealer or issuer, or a person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, is an agent only if he otherwise comes within this definition and any compensation that he receives is directly or indirectly related to purchases or sales of securities.
            (2) "Associated person" has the meaning given to that term in Section 3(a)(21) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
(3) "Blank check company" means any company that (A) devotes substantially all of its efforts to establishing a new business in which planned principal operations have not commenced or, that has commenced planned principal operations, but has not derived significant revenue therefrom; and (B) has no specific business plan or purpose or has indicated that its business plan is to engage in a merger or acquisition with an unidentified company or companies, or other entity or person.
            (4) "Branch office" means any location other than the main office, identified by any means to the public, customers or clients as a location at which a broker-dealer or investment adviser conducts a securities or investment advisory business. "Branch office" does not include (A) a location identified solely in a telephone directory line listing or on a business card or letterhead if (i) the listing, card, or letterhead also sets forth the address and telephone number of a Connecticut office of the broker-dealer or investment adviser from which individuals conducting business from such identified location are directly supervised, and (ii) no more than one agent or investment adviser agent transacts business on behalf of the broker-dealer or investment adviser from such identified location, or (B) any other location not within the intent of this subdivision as the commissioner may determine.
            (5) "Broker-dealer" means any person engaged in the business of effecting transactions in securities for the account of others or for such person's own account. "Broker-dealer" does not include (A) an agent, (B) an issuer, (C) a bank, as defined in Section 3(a)(6) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, when conducting activities that would except it from the definitions of "broker" or "dealer" under Sections 3(a)(4) or 3(a)(5) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, (D) a person who has no place of business in this state if such person effects transactions in this state exclusively with or through (i) the issuers of the securities involved in the transactions, (ii) other broker-dealers, or (iii) a bank and trust company, a national banking association, a savings bank, a savings and loan association, a federal savings and loan association, a credit union, a federal credit union, a trust company, an insurance company, an investment company as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, a pension or profit-sharing trust, or other financial institution or institutional buyer, whether acting for itself or as trustee, or (E) such other persons not within the intent of this subdivision as the commissioner may by regulation or order determine.
            (6) "Commissioner" means the Banking Commissioner or any person appointed or designated by the Banking Commissioner to administer sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive.
            (7) "Covered security" has the meaning given to that term in Section 18(b) of the Securities Act of 1933.
            (8) "Fraud", "deceit" and "defraud" are not limited to common-law deceit.
            (9) "Guaranteed" means guaranteed as to payment of principal, interest or dividends.
            (10) "Investment adviser" means any person who, for compensation, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications or writings, as to the value of securities or as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing or selling securities, or who, for compensation and as a part of a regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports concerning securities. "Investment adviser" does not include (A) an investment adviser agent; (B) a bank, as defined in Section 202(a)(2) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, or a bank holding company, as defined in the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, that is excepted from the definition of "investment adviser" in Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940; (C) a lawyer, accountant, engineer, or teacher whose performance of these services is solely incidental to the practice of such person's profession; (D) a broker-dealer whose performance of these services is solely incidental to the conduct of such person's business as a broker-dealer and who receives no special compensation for them; (E) a publisher of any bona fide newspaper, news magazine, or business or financial publication of general, regular, and paid circulation; (F) a person whose advice, analyses or reports relate only to securities exempted by subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 36b-21; (G) any insurance company under the supervision of the Insurance Commissioner or any affiliate thereof, as defined in subsection (b) of section 38a-129, when providing services to separate accounts of that insurance company or registered investment companies all of whose shares are owned by such insurance company or its insurance company affiliates or by the separate accounts of that insurance company or its insurance company affiliates; and (H) such other persons not within the intent of this subdivision as the commissioner may by regulation or order designate.
            (11) (A) "Investment adviser agent" includes (i) any individual, including an officer, partner or director of an investment adviser, or an individual occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, employed, appointed or authorized by or associated with an investment adviser to solicit business from any person for such investment adviser, within or from this state, and who receives compensation or other remuneration, directly or indirectly, for such solicitation; or (ii) any partner, officer, or director of an investment adviser, or an individual occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, or other individual employed, appointed, or authorized by or associated with an investment adviser, who makes any recommendation or otherwise renders advice regarding securities to clients and who receives compensation or other remuneration, directly or indirectly, for such advisory services.
            (B) "Investment adviser agent" does not include an individual employed, appointed or authorized by, associated with or acting on behalf of an investment adviser exempt from registration under subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (e) of section 36b-6, who is a "supervised person", as defined in Section 202(a)(25) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, unless such supervised person is an "investment adviser representative", as defined in Securities and Exchange Commission Rule 203A-3, 17 CFR 275.203A-3.
            (C) "Investment adviser agent" does not include such other individuals not within the intent of this subdivision as the commissioner may by regulation or order designate.
            (12) "Issuer" means any person who issues or proposes to issue any security; except that (A) with respect to certificates of deposit, voting-trust certificates, or collateral-trust certificates, or with respect to certificates of interest or shares in an unincorporated investment trust not having a board of directors or persons performing similar functions or of the fixed, restricted management, or unit type, "issuer" means the person or persons performing the acts and assuming the duties of depositor or manager pursuant to the provisions of the trust or other agreement or instrument under which the security is issued; and (B) with respect to certificates of interest or participation in oil, gas or mining titles or leases, or in payments out of production under such titles or leases, "issuer" means the owner of any such title, lease, right or interest, whether whole or fractional, who creates or sells fractional interests therein.
            (13) "Nonissuer" means not directly or indirectly for the benefit of the issuer.
            (14) "Person" means an individual, a corporation, a limited liability company, a partnership, an association, a joint-stock company, a trust where the interests of the beneficiaries are evidenced by a security, an unincorporated organization, a government or a political subdivision of a government.
            (15) (A) "Sale" or "sell" includes every contract of sale of, contract to sell, or disposition of, a security or interest in a security for value. (B) "Offer" or "offer to sell" includes every attempt or offer to dispose of, or solicitation of an offer to buy, a security or interest in a security for value. (C) Any security given or delivered with, or as a bonus on account of, any purchase of securities or any other thing shall be conclusively presumed to constitute a part of the subject of such purchase and to have been sold for value. (D) Nothing in this subdivision shall limit or diminish the full meaning of the terms "sale", "sell", "offer" or "offer to sell" as construed by the courts of this state. (E) A purported gift of assessable stock is considered to involve an offer and sale. (F) Every sale or offer of a warrant or right to purchase or subscribe to another security of the same or another issuer, as well as every sale or offer of a security which gives the holder a present or future right or privilege to convert into another security of the same or another issuer, is considered to include an offer of the other security. (G) The terms defined in this subdivision do not include: (i) Any bona fide pledge or loan; (ii) any stock dividend, whether the corporation distributing the dividend is the issuer of the stock or not, if nothing of value is given by stockholders for the dividend other than the surrender of a right to a cash or property dividend when each stockholder may elect to take the dividend in cash or property or in stock; (iii) any act incident to a class vote by security holders on a merger, exchange of securities for securities, consolidation, reclassification of securities, or sale of assets in consideration of the issuance of securities or securities and cash of another person other than an individual; or (iv) any security which is issued in exchange for one or more bona fide outstanding securities, claims or property interests, or partly in such exchange and partly for cash, where the terms and conditions of such issuance and exchange are approved by any state or federal court.
            (16) "Securities Act of 1933", "Securities Exchange Act of 1934", "Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935", "Investment Advisers Act of 1940" and "Investment Company Act of 1940" mean the federal statutes of those names, as from time to time amended.
            (17) "Security" means any note, stock, treasury stock, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, interests of limited partners in a limited partnership, collateral-trust certificate, preorganization certificate or subscription, transferable share, investment contract, voting-trust certificate, certificate of deposit for a security, certificate of interest or participation in an oil, gas or mining title or lease or in payments out of production under such a title or lease, or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a "security", or any certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim certificate for, receipt for, guarantee of, or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing. "Security" does not include any insurance or endowment policy or annuity contract issued by an insurance company which is subject to regulation by the Insurance Commissioner.
            (18) "Shell company" or "dormant company" means any company which does not pursue nor has the financial capacity to pursue a business plan or purpose.
            (19) "State" means any state, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.

 

Sec. 36b-4. (Formerly Sec. 36-472). Prohibited activities re the offer, sale or purchase of any security.

(a) No person shall, in connection with the offer, sale or purchase of any security, directly or indirectly: (1) Employ any device, scheme or artifice to defraud; (2) make any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in the light of the circumstances under which they are made, not misleading, or (3) engage in any act, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon any person.
            (b) No person shall, in connection with the offer, sale or purchase of any security, directly or indirectly engage in any dishonest or unethical practice.
            A person who aids and abets another's fraudulent conduct in connection with a securities transaction is not in violation of this section. 233 C. 304-307, 317-320, 322, 325, 327-333, 336, 339. Cited. Id., 352, 359. Cited. 235 C. 465, 467, 468. Cited. 242 C. 17.
           

 

Sec. 36b-5. (Formerly Sec. 36-473). Prohibited activities of investment advisers and persons who solicit advisory business on behalf of investment advisers.

(a) No person who directly or indirectly receives compensation or other remuneration for advising another person as to the value of securities or their purchase or sale, whether through the issuance of analyses or reports or otherwise, shall: (1) Employ any device, scheme or artifice to defraud the other person; (2) make any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they are made, not misleading; or (3) engage in any act, practice or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon such other person.
(b) (1) It is unlawful for any investment adviser that is registered or required to be registered under sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, to have, enter into, extend or renew any investment advisory contract, whether written or oral, unless it is signed by the client or clients and discloses in writing: (A) That the investment adviser shall not be compensated on the basis of a share of capital gains upon or capital appreciation of the funds or any portion of the funds of the client; (B) that an assignment of the contract may not be made by the investment adviser without the consent of the other party to the contract; (C) that the investment adviser, if a partnership, shall notify the other party to the contract of any change in the membership of the partnership within a reasonable time after the change; (D) the fee arrangement between the investment adviser and the client or clients; and (E) the services which the investment adviser will render. (2) Subparagraph (A) of subdivision (1) of this subsection does not prohibit an investment advisory contract which provides for compensation based upon the total or net asset value of a fund averaged over a definite period or as of definite dates or taken as of a definite date. (3) "Assignment", as used in subparagraph (B) of subdivision (1) of this subsection, includes any direct or indirect transfer or hypothecation of an investment advisory contract by the assignor or of the beneficial ownership of a controlling block of the assignor's outstanding voting securities by a security holder of the assignor, but, if the investment adviser is a partnership, an assignment of an investment advisory contract is not considered to result from the death or withdrawal of a minority of the members of the investment adviser having only a minority interest in the business of the investment adviser, or from the admission to the investment adviser of one or more members who, after admission, will be only a minority of the members and will have only a minority interest in the business.
            (c) It is unlawful for any investment adviser that is registered or required to be registered under sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, to take or have custody of any securities or funds of any client if: (1) The commissioner by regulation prohibits custody; or (2) in the absence of a regulation, the investment adviser fails to notify the commissioner that he has or may have custody.
            (d) Subparagraph (A) of subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section shall not be construed to prohibit performance fees permitted and determined in accordance with Section 205 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, and any rules or regulations adopted in accordance with said act.
            (e) No person who directly or indirectly receives compensation or other remuneration for soliciting advisory business on behalf of a person subject to the prohibition contained in subsection (a) of this section shall, in connection with such solicitation: (1) Employ any device, scheme or artifice to defraud; (2) make any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they are made, not misleading; or (3) engage in any act, practice or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit.
            (f) No person who directly or indirectly receives compensation or other remuneration for: (1) Advising another person as to the value of securities or their purchase or sale, whether through the issuance of analyses or reports or otherwise; or (2) soliciting advisory business on behalf of a person subject to the prohibition contained in subsection (a) of this section shall engage in any dishonest or unethical practice in connection with the rendering of such advice or in connection with such solicitation.

FALSE OR MISLEADING STATEMENTS PROHIBITED

 Sec. 36b-23. (Formerly Sec. 36-492). False or misleading statements prohibited. No person shall make or cause to be made orally or in any document filed with the commissioner or in any proceeding, investigation or examination under sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, any statement which is, at the time and in the light of the circumstances under which it is made, false or misleading in any material respect.

PENALTIES

Sec. 36b-28. (Formerly Sec. 36-497). Penalties. (a) Any person who wilfully violates any provision of subsection (a) of section 36b-4 or subsection (a) or (f) of section 36b-5 shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars or imprisoned for not more than ten years or both.
            (b) Any person who wilfully violates any other provision of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, shall be fined not more than two thousand dollars or imprisoned for not more than two years or both.
            (c) No information may be returned under sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, more than five years after the alleged violation.

BUYER’S REMEDIES

Sec. 36b-29. (Formerly Sec. 36-498). Buyer's remedies. (a) Any person who: (1) Offers or sells a security in violation of subsection (a) of section 36b-6, 36b-16 or subsection (b) of section 36b-24 or of any regulation or order under section 36b-22 which requires the affirmative approval of sales literature before it is used, or of any condition imposed under subsection (d) of section 36b-18 or subsection (g) or (h) of section 36b-19; or (2) offers or sells or materially assists any person who offers or sells a security by means of any untrue statement of a material fact or any omission to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in the light of the circumstances under which they are made, not misleading, who knew or in the exercise of reasonable care should have known of the untruth or omission, the buyer not knowing of the untruth or omission, and who does not sustain the burden of proof that he did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the untruth or omission, is liable to the person buying the security, who may sue either at law or in equity to recover the consideration paid for the security, together with interest at eight per cent per year from the date of payment, costs and reasonable attorneys' fees, less the amount of any income received on the security, upon the tender of the security, or for damages if he no longer owns the security.
            (b) (1) Any person who violates subsection (a) of section 36b-5 and (2) any investment adviser who violates subsection (b) or (c) of section 36b-5, the registration requirement in subsection (c) of section 36b-6, or subsection (b) of section 36b-24, shall be liable to the recipient of investment advisory services for any consideration paid by the recipient for those services and any loss resulting from the investment advisory services provided, less any profits earned by the recipient through transactions effected as a result of the advice rendered, plus interest at the rate of eight per cent per year from the date of payment of the consideration, costs and reasonable attorney's fees.
            (c) Every person who directly or indirectly controls a person liable under subsections (a) and (b) of this section, every partner, officer or director of such a person, every person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, every employee of such a person who materially aids in the act or transaction constituting the violation and every broker-dealer or agent who materially aids in the act or transaction constituting the violation are also liable jointly and severally with and to the same extent as such person, unless the person who is so liable sustains the burden of proof that he did not know, and in exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of the facts by reason of which the liability is alleged to exist. There shall be contribution as in cases of contract among the several persons so liable.
            (d) Any tender specified in this section may be made at any time before entry of judgment.
            (e) Every cause of action under sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, survives the death of any person who might have been a plaintiff or defendant.
            (f) No person may bring an action under this section more than two years after the date of the contract of sale or of the contract for investment advisory services, except that with respect to actions arising out of intentional misrepresentation or fraud in the purchase or sale of securities, no person may bring an action more than two years from the date when the misrepresentation or fraud is discovered or in the exercise of reasonable care should have been discovered, except that no such action may be brought more than five years from the date of such misrepresentation or fraud.
            (g) No person may bring an action under subsection (a) of this section: (1) If the buyer received a written offer, before suit and at a time when he owned the security, to refund the consideration paid together with interest at six per cent per year from the date of payment, less the amount of any income received on the security, and he failed to accept the offer within thirty days of its receipt, or (2) if the buyer received such an offer before bringing a cause of action and at a time when he did not own the security, unless he rejected the offer in writing within thirty days of its receipt.
            (h) No person who has made or engaged in the performance of any contract in violation of any provision of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation or order thereunder, or who has acquired any purported right under any such contract with knowledge of the facts by reason of which its making or performance was in violation, may base any cause of action on the contract.
            (i) Any condition, stipulation or provision binding any person acquiring any security or receiving investment advice to waive compliance with any provision of sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, or any regulation or order thereunder is void.
            (j) The rights and remedies provided by sections 36b-2 to 36b-33, inclusive, are in addition to any other rights or remedies that may exist at law or in equity.


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The above is not the complete act. This page contains only certain sections of the statute which we believe you may find informative. We do not and cannot guarantee the above sections are current law in this state. Legislatures may enact revised statutes at any time. Moreover these sections are presented for informational purposes only and are presented "as is" with all faults and with no warranties or guarantees as to the accuracy. Further, The content on these pages are not offered or intended to be legal advice by this firm for any purpose or manner whatsoever. If you require the current and complete version of the Law in your state, you should visit the Legislature home page of the particular state for more information or contact an attorney for advice on obtaining such information.

 

 
 
 
 

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