Selected Sections of the
Virginia Securities Act
Sections included on this page:
A. When used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:
"Agent" means any individual who, as a director, officer, partner, associate, employee or sales representative of a broker-dealer or issuer, effects or undertakes to effect sales of securities, otherwise than on behalf of (i) an issuer either offering a security exempted by subdivision 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, or 10 of subsection A of § 13.1-514 or effecting a transaction with a "qualified purchaser" as defined by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission or (ii) a broker-dealer effecting in this Commonwealth transactions limited to those transactions described in § 15 (h) (2) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
"Broker-dealer" means any person engaged in the business of selling any type of security other than an interest or unit in a condominium as defined in subdivision (c) of § 55-79.2 or cooperative housing corporation for the account of others or for his own account otherwise than with or through a broker-dealer or agent, but does not include an issuer or an agent. A bank or trust subsidiary formed under Article 3.1 (§ 6.1-32.1 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 6.1 shall not be considered to be a broker-dealer because the bank or trust subsidiary formed under Article 3.1 (§ 6.1-32.1 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 6.1 engages in any one or more of the activities specified in subparagraph (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (viii), (ix) or (x) of § 3 (a) (4) (B) or in § 3 (a) (5) (C) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 under the conditions described in connection with such laws.
"Commission" means the State Corporation Commission.
"Control" means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract, or otherwise.
"Cooperative housing corporation" means a corporation in which each member is entitled, solely by reason of his membership in the corporation, to occupy for dwelling purposes a house or an apartment in a building owned or leased or to be owned or leased by the corporation or to purchase a dwelling constructed or to be constructed by the corporation. The corporation shall not be or intend to be engaged in any business or activity other than the ownership, leasing, management, or construction of residential properties for its members, except to the extent that such business or activity is incidental to the ownership, leasing, management, or construction of residential properties. The securities of the corporation shall be issued only in connection with the sale or lease of dwelling units to persons who are or thereupon become members of the corporation and shall be transferable by the purchasers only in connection with the transfer of such dwelling units or leases to other persons who are or thereupon become members.
"Federal covered advisor" means any person who is registered or required to be registered under § 203 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 as an "investment adviser."
"Federal covered security" means any security described as a "covered security" in § 18 of the Securities Act of 1933.
"Guaranteed" means guaranteed as to payment of principal, interest or dividends.
"Investment advisor" means any person who, for compensation, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications or writings, as to the value of securities or as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities, or who, for compensation and as part of a regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports concerning securities. Investment advisor also includes financial planners and other persons who, as an integral component of other financially related services, provide the foregoing investment advisory services to others for compensation and as a part of a business or who hold themselves out as providing the foregoing investment advisory services to others for compensation. "Investment advisor" does not include (i) an investment advisor representative; (ii) a bank, a bank holding company as defined in the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 which is not an investment company, a trust subsidiary organized under Article 3.1 (§ 6.1-32.1 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 6.1, a savings institution, a credit union, or a trust company; (iii) a lawyer, accountant, engineer, or teacher whose performance of these services is solely incidental to the practice of his profession; (iv) a broker-dealer or his agent whose performance of these services is solely incidental to the conduct of his business as a broker-dealer and who receives no special compensation for them; (v) a publisher of any newspaper, news column, newsletter, news magazine, or business or financial publication or service, whether communicated in hard copy form, or by electronic means, or otherwise, that does not consist of the rendering of advice on the basis of the specific situation of each client; (vi) any person that is a federal covered advisor; or (vii) such other persons not within the intent of this definition, as the Commission may designate by rule or determine by order pursuant to § 13.1-525.
"Investment advisor representative" means any partner, officer, director of, or a person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, or other individual, except clerical or ministerial personnel, who is employed by or associated with (a) an investment advisor registered or required to be registered under this chapter and who does any of the following: (i) makes any recommendations or otherwise renders advice regarding securities, (ii) manages accounts or portfolios of clients, (iii) determines which recommendations or advice regarding securities should be given, (iv) prepares reports or analyses concerning securities, (v) solicits, offers or negotiates for the sale of or sells investment advisory services, or (vi) supervises employees who perform any of the foregoing; or (b) a federal covered advisor, subject to the limitations of § 203 A of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as the Commission may designate by rule or order. "Investment advisor representative" does not include such other persons employed by or associated with either an investment advisor or a federal covered advisor not within the intent of this definition as the Commission may designate by rule or determine by order pursuant to § 13.1-525.
"Issuer" means any person who issues or proposes to issue a security, except that:
1. With respect to certificates of deposit, voting trust certificates or collateral trust certificates, and with respect to certificates of interest or shares in an unincorporated investment trust not having a board of directors or persons performing similar functions, or of the fixed, restricted management or unit type, the term "issuer" means the person or persons performing the acts and assuming the duties of manager;
2. With respect to equipment trust certificates or like securities, "issuer" means the person by whom the equipment is or is to be used;
3. With respect to oil, gas or other mineral leases, rights or royalties or interests therein, "issuer" means the owner of any such lease, right, royalty or interest (whether whole or fractional) who creates financial interests therein for the purpose of offering to more than five persons.
"Nonissuer distribution" means any transaction not directly or indirectly for the benefit of the issuer.
"Offer" includes every attempt or offer to dispose of, or solicitation of an offer to buy, a security or interest in a security for value.
"Person" means an individual, a partnership, a corporation, an unincorporated association, a government, a subdivision of a government, or a trust in which the interests of the beneficiaries are evidenced by securities.
"Sale" or "sell" includes every contract of sale of, contract to sell, or disposition of, a security or interest in a security for value.
"Securities Act of 1933," "Securities Exchange Act of 1934," "Bank Holding Company Act of 1956," "Investment Advisers Act of 1940," and "Investment Company Act of 1940" mean the federal statutes of those names as now or hereafter amended.
"Security" means any note; stock; treasury stock; bond; debenture; evidence of indebtedness; certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement; collateral trust certificate; preorganization certificate of subscription; transferable share; investment contract; voting-trust certificate; certificate of deposit for a security; oil, gas or other mineral lease, right or royalty, or any interest therein; or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a "security," or any certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim certificate for, guarantee of, or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing. However, this definition shall not apply to any insurance policy, endowment policy, annuity contract, variable annuity contract or any contract or agreement in relation to and in consequence of any such policy or contract, issued by an insurance company subject to the supervision or control of the Commission's Bureau of Insurance when the form of such policy or contract has been duly filed with the Bureau as now or hereafter required by law.
"State" means any state, territory or possession of the United States, including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.
B. For the purposes of Article 4 (§ 13.1-507 et seq.) of this chapter, the terms defined in this section shall not include negotiations or agreements between the issuer and any underwriter or among underwriters; or any transaction by the pledgee of a security unless made directly or indirectly for the benefit of the issuer.
C. Any security given or delivered with, or as a bonus on account of, any purchase of securities or any other thing shall be deemed to constitute part of the subject of the purchase and to have been offered and sold for value.
D. Every sale or offer of a warrant or right to purchase or subscribe to another security of the same issuer or of another person, and every sale or offer, of a security which gives the holder thereof a present or future right or privilege to convert the security into another security of the same issuer or of another person, shall be deemed to include an offer of such other security.
UNLAWFUL OFFERS AND SALES
It shall be unlawful for any person in the offer or sale of any securities, directly or indirectly,
(1) To employ any device, scheme or artifice to defraud, or
(2) To obtain money or property by means of any untrue statement of a material fact or any omission to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, or
(3) To engage in any transaction, practice or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon the purchaser.
A. It shall be unlawful for any person who receives directly or indirectly any consideration from another person primarily for advising such other person as to the value of securities or their purchase or sale, whether through the issuance of analyses or reports or otherwise,
1. To employ any device, scheme, or artifice to defraud such other person,
2. To engage in any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon such other person,
3. Acting as principal for his own account, knowingly to sell any security to or purchase any security from a client, or acting as broker for a person other than such client, knowingly to effect any sale or purchase of any security for the account of such client, without disclosing to such client in writing before the completion of such transaction the capacity in which he is acting and obtaining the consent of the client to such transaction. The prohibitions of this subdivision shall not apply to any transaction with a customer of a broker-dealer if such broker-dealer is not acting as an investment advisor in relation to such transaction, or
4. To engage in dishonest or unethical practices as the Commission may define by rule.
B. In the solicitation of advisory clients, it shall be unlawful for any person to make any untrue statement of a material fact, or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
C. Except as may be permitted by rule or order of the Commission, it shall be unlawful for any investment advisor to enter into, extend, or renew any investment advisory contract unless it provides in writing:
1. That the investment advisor shall not be compensated on the basis of a share of capital gains upon or capital appreciation of the funds or any portion of the funds of the client;
2. That no assignment of the contract may be made by the investment advisor without the consent of the other party to the contract; and
3. That the investment advisor, if a partnership, shall notify the other party to the contract of any change in the membership of the partnership within a reasonable time after the change.
D. Subdivision 1 of subsection C of this section shall not prohibit an investment advisory contract which provides for compensation based upon the total value of a fund averaged over a definite period, or as of definite dates or taken as of a definite date.
E. "Assignment" as used in subdivision 2 of subsection C of this section includes any direct or indirect transfer or hypothecation of an investment advisory contract by the assignor or of a controlling block of the assignor's outstanding voting securities by a security holder of the assignor. If the investment advisory is a partnership, no assignment of an investment advisory contract is considered to result from the death of withdrawal of a minority of the members of the investment advisor having only a minority interest in the business of the investment advisor, or from the admission to the investment advisor of one or more members who, after admission, will be only a minority of the members and will have only a minority interest in the business.
F. The Commission may by rule or order adopt exemptions from subdivision 3 of subsection A and subdivisions 1, 2 and 3 of subsection C of this section where such exemptions are consistent with the public interest and within the purposes fairly intended by the policy and provisions of this chapter.
PRIMACY OF VIRGINIA LAW TO BE MAINTAINED
A. Pursuant to section 6 (c) of the federal Philanthropy Protection Act of 1995, Pub. L. 104-62, the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia, which are referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of section 6 of the aforementioned federal law, shall not be preempted by such section.
B. On and after July 1, 1997, the provisions of this chapter together with any subsequent amendments thereto shall retain primacy and shall apply in all administrative and judicial actions.
The Commission may require, subject to the limitations of § 222 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, in any particular case, any person who has published or circulated any advertisement or sales literature regarding a security, other than a federal covered security as defined in § 18 (b) (2) of the Securities Act of 1933, or an investment advisory service to file copies thereof with the Commission.
A. Any person who shall knowingly and willfully make, or cause to be made, any false statement in any book of account or other paper of any person subject to the provisions of this chapter, or knowingly and willfully exhibit any false paper to the Commission, or who shall knowingly and willfully commit any act declared unlawful by this chapter, with the intent to defraud any purchaser of securities or user of investment advisory services or with intent to deceive the Commission as to any material fact for the purpose of inducing the Commission to take any action or refrain from taking any action pursuant to this chapter, shall be guilty of a Class 4 felony.
B. Any person who shall knowingly make or cause to be made any false statement in any book of account or other paper of any person subject to the provisions of this chapter or exhibit any false paper to the Commission or who shall commit any act declared unlawful by this chapter shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.
C. Prosecutions under this section shall be instituted by indictments in the courts of record having jurisdiction of felonies within three years from the date of the offense.
A. Any person who: (i) sells a security in violation of §§ 13.1-502, 13.1-504 A, 13.1-507 (i) or (ii), 13.1-510 (e) or (f), or (ii) sells a security by means of an untrue statement of a material fact or any omission to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statement made, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading (the purchaser not knowing of such untruth or omission), and who shall not sustain the burden of proof that he did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of such untruth or omission, shall be liable to the person purchasing such security from him who may sue either at law or in equity to recover the consideration paid for such security, together with interest thereon at the annual rate of six percent, costs, and reasonable attorneys' fees, less the amount of any income received on the security, upon the tender of such security, or for the substantial equivalent in damages if he no longer owns the security.
B. Any person who (i) engages in the business of advising others, for compensation, either directly or through publications or writings, as to the value of securities or as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities, or who, for compensation and as a part of a regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports concerning securities in willful and material violation of § 13.1-503, subsection A of § 13.1-504, or of any rule or order under § 13.1-505.1, or (ii) receives, directly or indirectly, any consideration from another person for advice as to the value of securities or their purchase or sale, whether through the issuance of analyses, reports or otherwise and employs any device, scheme, or artifice to defraud such other person or engages in any act, practice or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit on such other person, shall be liable to that person who may sue either at law or in equity to recover the consideration paid for such advice and any loss due to such advice, together with interest thereon at the annual rate of six percent from the date of payment of the consideration plus costs and reasonable attorney's fees, less the amount of any income received from such advice and any other economic advantage.
C. Every person who directly or indirectly controls a person liable under subsection A or B of this section, including every partner, officer, or director of such a person, every person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, every employee of such a person who materially aids in the conduct giving rise to the liability, and every broker-dealer, investment advisor, investment advisor representative or agent who materially aids in such conduct shall be liable jointly and severally with and to the same extent as such person, unless able to sustain the burden of proof that he did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of the facts by reason of which the liability is alleged to exist. There shall be contribution as in cases of contract among the several persons so liable.
D. No suit shall be maintained to enforce any liability created under this section unless brought within two years after the transaction upon which it is based; provided, that, if any person liable by reason of subsection A, B or C of this section makes a written offer, before suit is brought, to refund the consideration paid and any loss due to any investment advice provided by such person, together with interest thereon at the annual rate of six percent, less the amount of any income received on the security or resulting from such advice, or to pay damages if the purchaser no longer owns the security, no purchaser or user of the investment advisory service shall maintain a suit under this section who has refused or failed to accept such offer within thirty days of its receipt.
E. Any tender specified in this section may be made at any time before entry of judgment.
F. Any condition, stipulation or provision binding any person acquiring any security or receiving any investment advice to waive compliance with any provision of this chapter or of any rule or order thereunder shall be void.
G. The rights and remedies provided by this chapter shall be in addition to any and all other rights and remedies that may exist at law or in equity.
DIVISION CREATED; DUTIES
There is hereby created in the office of the Attorney General a Division of Securities Counsel.
The duties of such Division shall be to provide legal and technical assistance to an attorney for the Commonwealth, in the preparation for a prosecution of and the prosecution of a violation of this title; provided, however, such assistance shall be rendered only upon the request of the attorney for the Commonwealth.
ATTORNEYS; EMPLOYEES AND CONSULTANTS
The Attorney General may employ and fix the salaries of such attorneys, employees and consultants, within the amounts appropriated to the Attorney General for providing legal service for the Commonwealth, as he may deem necessary for the operation of the Division of Securities Counsel to carry out its functions.
COMMISSION TO PROVIDE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
The State Corporation Commission shall provide technical assistance to the Division of Securities Counsel in its investigation and preparation of a prosecution under the provisions of this title.
The above is not the complete act. This page contains only certain sections of the statute which we believe you may find informative. We do not and cannot guarantee the above sections are current law in this state. Legislatures may enact revised statutes at any time. Moreover these sections are presented for informational purposes only and are presented “as is” with all faults and with no warranties or guarantees as to the accuracy. Further, The content on these pages are not offered or intended to be legal advice by this firm for any purpose or manner whatsoever. If you require the current and complete version of the Law in your state, you should visit the Legislature home page of the particular state for more information or contact an attorney for advice on obtaining such information.